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英语写作方法(一)

2017/02/27 796

                                                           英语主体段的展开方法
一、列举法
列举法可以说是英语应试作文中一种最常见的方法,这种方法常见于议论文中。作者
首先在主题句里提出自己的观点,然后列举出一系列的具体事实和依据来说明其观点。
1. 写作步骤
1)首先用主题句点明主题内容;
2)然后选择适当的关联词分别列举内容;
3)最后从段落内容中得出合乎逻辑的结论。
2. 写作模式
↗事实 1↘
主题句→事实 2→总结
↘事实 3↗
3. 常用词语
1)表示先后顺序的序数词:first,second,third
2)表示并列关系的副词:firstly,secondly,finally,next,then,last
3)表示并列关系的词语:one,another,other,first of all,in addition,moreover,besides,
furthermore
例 1:Nuclear power could be a source of energy for many years to come. However, there are
several problems which have to be solved. The first one is the disposal of radioactive waste. This
is highly harmful and remains active for thousands of years. Another problem is the possibility of
an accident that liberates radioactive material into the environment. Still another problem with
the development of nuclear energy is the danger of its being turned into the production of atomic
bombs.
文中 “However, there are several problems which have to be solved” 是段落的主题句,表
明在核能源的发展方面存在一些问题有待解决。接下来作者用列举法列举了三个方面的问
题,段落中使用的连接词是 the first one, another, still another.
例 2:John likes to fly as an airline passenger at night rather than during the day for four
reasons. First, it costs less. For example, he would have to pay $ 125 to fly from San Francisco to Mexico City by day. But by night, the fare is $75. Second, the plane is less crowded on night flights. Because of this, Paulo rarely has to sit three abreast when he flies at night. As a result, he has more room to stretch out. Third, night flights are quieter than day flights. For instance, John can study or read without being distracted by loud conversations or by people walking up and down the aisle. Fourth ,passengers on night flights can usually sleep quite comfortably if theywant to.They do this by folding up the armrests between three empty seats. This allows a passenger to lie down for a nap under a blanket. For these reasons, John rarely reserves a daytime flight on a commercial airline.
在此例中,作者在第一句主题句中概括出约翰喜欢晚间坐飞机,原因有四。接下来在扩
展部分把四种原因一一道来。使用的连接词是 first,second,third,fourth,最后一句对全段
做了一个概括性的总结。纵观全段,条理清晰,结构工整,是成功运用列举法的一个典范。
4. 注意事项
在利用列举法展开段落时,要注意所列举内容的顺序。主要顺序如下:
1)有时可以以时间发展的顺序来安排素材,这时只要把握住时间的脉络,就不难做到段
落的连贯。
2)有时可以按空间顺序发展段落,就是根据事物的位置及其相互关系来安排素材。这
种位置关系往往是写作者的观察顺序。
3)在大学英语写作中,经常使用列举法按照事物重要性的顺序来发展段落,通常的顺
序是由非重要到重要、由特殊到一般。
              
              二、举例法
  在写作中,我们经常需要举例来阐明要表达的思想。举例法就是举出实例,阐述主题
句思想的方法。举例法简单易行,能以生动的例子使空泛、抽象的观点具体化,具有较强的说服力和感染力。大学英语作文往往要求作者提出某种观点并加以阐述,以使读者相信这种观点的合理性,因此,在段落的发展中如果能够援引适当的例子来阐述自己的观点,将会起到事半功倍的效果。
1. 写作模式
举例法的写作模式和列举法很相似,但这种模式并不是一成不变的,所举例子的数量
也要视具体情况而定,有时可以是一个,有时可以是多个。
↗例子 1↘
主题句→例子 2→总结
↘例子 3↗
例如:Unlike human beings, animals communicate with one another by means of cries: for
example, many birds utter warning calls at the approach of danger;apes utter different cries, such as expression of anger, fear and pleasure. But these various means of communication differ in important ways from human language. For instance, animals' cries are not articulate. This means, basically, that they lack structure. They lack, for example, the kind of structure given by the contrast between vowel and consonants They also lack the kind of structure that enables us to divide a human utterance into words.
本段的中心话题是动物之间的交流方式与人类使用语言来进行交流的方式是不同的。 这原本是一个比较抽象的、专业性较强的话题,但作者通过举例的方式,生动具体地阐述了自己的观点。
2. 举例法的分类
根据说明主题的例证材料,举例法基本上分为数据举例、引语举例和事件举例三种。
1)数据举例法
顾名思义,就是援引数据来说明自己观点的方法,数字的使用能增加文章的权威性和
可靠性。在前面谈过的段落中,作者采用数据举例法,运用数字的对比,具体而真实地证实了段落的主题,非常有说服力。
John likes to fly as an airline passenger at night rather than during the day for four reasons.
First, it costs less. For example, he would have to pay $125 to fly from San Francisco to Mexico City by day. But by night, the fare is $75. Second, the plane is less crowded on night flights...
用于数据举例的词语:
some, about, or so, approximately, the approximate number of, the average of, the proportion
of… to... in the proportion / ratio of...
2)引语举例法
引语举例法是直接或间接引用名人或权威的话语或研究成果来证实自己观点的方法。
以下例文的作者用 estimated that 和 said 分别间接、 直接地引述电脑专家 Donn B. Parker 的言论来说明段落主题。
The costs to the victims of computer crime are very high. In his book, computer expert Done
B. Parker estimated that financial losses to business from computer thefts would exceed $ 10
billion in 1978. Although Parker's estimate is based on documented cases, no one really knows the
extent of computer crime because thefts by computers are almost impossible to discover. “There is just no reliable way to detect computer thefts Parker said.” It is not just the money they control, they control data, and data is power.”
用于引语举例的词语:
said that, as ... said, continue to say that, stated (that) ,as stated, believe (that)
3)事实举例法
事实举例法就是举出相关的事实或实例来说明自已观点的方法。这种举例方法是最常
见,也是说理性最强的一种。下例以人们很难客观地评价某一个人为主题,采用了 Jack 和Sam 两个人的实例说明这一观点。
It is very difficult to evaluate another person's performance objectively. For example,Jack recently wrote irresponsible remarks about her instructor because she was failing the course. Her friend Sam wrote a marvelous description of the same instructor because he was receiving an A in the course. Both Jack and Sam were not fairly evaluating the instructor. They were influenced by the grades they were earning and were biased in their judgment.
用于事实举例的词语和句型:
① for example, for instance, for another example, that is, namely, such as, like
② This can be shown / illustrated by...
③ To take ... as an example,
④ One example is…; another example is ...
⑤ A is just an illustration of B.
⑥ A good example of X is ...
⑦ There is enough evidence to show / support / indicate that…
3. 注意事项
1)所选的例子一般是读者能感受到的具体的事情,或是读者较为熟悉的日常事件或现
象,
2)所举的例子应该尽量典型、具体、有代表性,并能服务于写作目的。
3)举例数量应适可而止,多了显得罗嗦,少了说明不了问题。
4)举例的顺序要安排得当,一般的安排顺序是由非重要到重要,由熟悉到不熟悉,由
过去到现在。