all but几乎、差不多, /
as yet至今, /
as anything非常地 , /
anything but根本不, /
apart from除了, /
but for若不是, /
by far远不，……得多, /
by no means根本不, /
by any means无论如何 , /
due to由于, /
except for除了, /
far from远非, /
in contact with与……有联系, /
on account of因为, /
on the basis根据, /
only to + v(动词)结果是, /
might/may as well还是,/
not to mention更不用说, /
let alone更不用说, /
no more than完全是,/
can not…too…再……也不过分, /
rather than而不是, /
*1.The beauty of this city is more than words can describe.(=The beauty of this city is beyond description.)
2) Little/no/not any…more than
no more…than…和not…any more than…和……一样都不……；就……跟一样
1. The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.
2.There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.
not…any more than…是no more…than…的一种强调形式，二者可以互相转化，如：
*1.A man can no more fly than a bird can speak.(=A man can not fly any more than a bird can speak.)
*2.The greatness of a people is no more determined by their number than the greatness of a man is determined by his height.
3.You don’t need to know the technical details of your computer any more than you need to understand the technology behind your microwave oven.
* (be) more of a…than…a…
*4.He is more of a politician than a scholar.
3) (no/ nothing) less(…) than; nothing else than
1．He was less hurt than frightened.
no less than简直是，实在是; nothing else than完全是，实在是; other than不同于，非; 除了；none other than就是。
1．It is no less than a scandal.
2．What the man said was nothing else than your diligence.
3．The new arrival was none than the President.
4) not so much(…) as/ but与其说……不如说……
1．Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of generous as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools.
2. But whether their efforts can be more effective than those of the traditional politician may depend not so much on the present day working scientists, but on the scientist now being trained.
* not so much as …(not even)甚至不……；连……也不……
He didn't so much as say thank you after all we’d done for him
5) rather than
1.He resigned rather than take part in such a dishonest transaction.
2. HE rather than you is responsible for the loss.
6) not …nearly as much as远远不如
The earth does not pull the kitten to it nearly as much as it pulls a big rock.
7) not possibly 根本不会
Their views could not possibly be misunderstood.
8) much/still less更不用说，更不必说
Much less / still less引导的词组或从句，表示一种否定意义的追加，less 是由little 的否定意义而来，所以这两个词组只能用于否定句中，意为“更不用说，更不必说”。
1. He could not agree to, much less participate in such proceedings.
2. He knows little of mathematics, and still less of chemistry.
9) to say nothing of / not to speak of / not to mention / let alone更不必说
这四个词组同样都表示一种意义追加， 但它们不同于much less和still less，这四个出租意义的追加必须随前一句意思而定：前一句是肯定，则追加肯定；前一句是否定，则追加否定意义。
1. In old China, there was hardly any machine building industry, to say nothing of an electronic industry.
2. At that time, they couldn't afford the ordinary comforts of life, not to speak of luxuries.
3. All they have o do is press a button, and they can see plays, films, operas, and shows of every football match.
10) but 短语
anything but根本不; nothing but只不过; all but几乎，差不多；除一点；除……以外其余都; but for要表不是
1.Alone in a deserted house, he was so busy with his research work that he felt anything but lonely.
比较：He seldom talked of anything but painting.(but在此相当于except)
2. The mode of scientific investigation is nothing but the expression of the necessary mode of working of the human mind.
3. She all but fainted when she heard the news.(all but 相当于nearly, almost)
4. But for the rain we should have a pleasant journey.
*but 置于否定句后，起关系代词作用，相当于that (which, who)…not,从而构成双重否定。
1. There is no rule but has exceptions.
2. There is nothing in the world but teaches us some good lessons.
3. It never rains but pours.
but 做连词，常以but than(what) 形式出现，接具有否定意义的从句，意为……而不……,（……的话）必定……,若不是，若非等。
1. It was impossible but she could see it.
2. But what I saw it, I could not have believe it.
*but 作连词用在“not so + 形容词/such a + but (that) …”句型中， but 含有“that…not”之意，可以反映为“没有到……（不能……）的地步”，“无论怎样……也不是不能……”,“虽然……但是……”(注意本结构与前文“”not so much…but,…与其说……不如说……的区别。)
1. I’m not so foolish / not such a fool that I can see what he really meant.
2. He is not so sick but he can come to school.
11) only to+v. “……，结果却”
They don’t have to pay for expressive seats at the theatre, the cinema or the opera, only to discover, perhaps, that the show is disappearing.
12) cann’t / cannot / can scarcely…too (cannot…too=can never…too…)
1. A bok may be compared to your neighbour; if it be good, it cannot last too long; if bad, you cannot get rid of it too early.
2. One can scarcely pay too high a price for liberty.
3. One cannot be too careful in doing experiments.
13) it 作形式主语的句型
1．It occurs to sb….that…(某人)想起……
It occurred to me that I had met him somewhere.
2．It appears that…看起来似乎，好象……
It appears to me that the title is completely wrong.
4. it goes without saying that…不言而喻的是……
It goes without saying that in order to speak goog English, we must first of all learn good pronunciation.
5. It is common knowledge that…众所周知的是……
It is common knowedge now that Chinese people are very intelligent.
6. It is a /an + adj. + that / who…表示“无论怎样……的……也不会……”或“不管……也不可能……”
It is a wise father that knows his own child.
It is a good machine that can work without power.
The last + to do 或定语从句，意为“最不可能的”、“最不合适的”。句中last 相当于the least likely, 类似表示否定意义的极限词组还有the least, the limit 等。
She would be the last person to go along with the scheme.
That’s the last thing I’d expect you to do.
1. The old professor in spectacles is the head of the English Department.
2. He is the distinguished Canadian scientist.
3. Shanghai is one of the biggest industrial bases in our country.
4. That was a well-equipped machine-building plant built in London in 1977.
5. Thousands of beautiful roses that blossom almost at same time make the park the great resort of people in spring.
6. A new English-Chinese Dictionary that I bought here yesterday and placed on the shelf is very useful for translation.
7. These up-to-date practical lectures on translation specially written for college students have features in theoretical principles and technical direction.